The issue had been fixed by Google.
Beta version of Chrome browser 79.0.3945 or higher has a bug that prevents users to pass Google authorization normally. It manifests as follows: a user clicks on "SignIn" button, authenticates himself in the Google authorization popup window and expects to be redirected to the app page but nothing happens.
The best solution is using only stable (not a beta) browser versions for your production environment. Regarding the Chrome browser, the latest stable version is 78.0.3904.
If you are using Chrome 79.0.3945 or higher the workaround is to disable "SameSite by default cookies" flag. To do this you need to copy/paste chrome://flags/#same-site-by-default-cookies to your Chrome address bar and set Disabled value for the flag, then restart Chrome.